Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases that are characterized by high glucose levels in the body due to defects in insulin production and/or a diminished response to insulin. Diabetes affects an estimated 30.3 million people in the United States, accounting for 9.4% of the total population.1 The prevalence of diabetes is projected to increase to more than 54.9 million Americans between 2015 and 2030.2 Treatment, education and support for patients is necessary and should be ongoing to reduce the risk of complications associated with diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease.3  

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease due to β-cell destruction (cells responsible for insulin secretion), which ultimately leads to absolute insulin deficiency. It is primarily diagnosed at a young age and accounts for approximately 5% -10% of all diabetes diagnoses. The risk for type 1 diabetes includes multiple genetic and environmental factors. Patients with type 1 diabetes are dependent on insulin therapy for survival.1,3  

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency due to a progressive loss of β cell insulin secretion, accounting for 90-95% of all diabetes diagnoses. Although type 2 diabetes was at one time diagnosed primarily in adults, it is increasingly being diagnosed in younger patients. The cause of the insulin secretory defect is multifactorial and is usually considered to be metabolic. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity, and lack of physical activity, and it is often associated with a strong genetic predisposition.3,4  

Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases that are characterized by high glucose levels in the body due to defects in insulin production and/or a diminished response to insulin. Diabetes affects an estimated 30.3 million people in the United States, accounting for 9.4% of the total population.1 The prevalence of diabetes is projected to increase to more than 54.9 million Americans between 2015 and 2030.2 Treatment, education and support for patients is necessary and should be ongoing to reduce the risk of complications associated with diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease.3  

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease due to β-cell destruction (cells responsible for insulin secretion), which ultimately leads to absolute insulin deficiency. It is primarily diagnosed at a young age and accounts for approximately 5% -10% of all diabetes diagnoses. The risk for type 1 diabetes includes multiple genetic and environmental factors. Patients with type 1 diabetes are dependent on insulin therapy for survival.1,3  

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency due to a progressive loss of β cell insulin secretion, accounting for 90-95% of all diabetes diagnoses. Although type 2 diabetes was at one time diagnosed primarily in adults, it is increasingly being diagnosed in younger patients. The cause of the insulin secretory defect is multifactorial and is usually considered to be metabolic. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity, and lack of physical activity, and it is often associated with a strong genetic predisposition.3,4  

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2017.
  2. Rowley WR et al. Diabetes 2030: Insights from Yesterday, Today, and Future Trends. Population Health Management. 2017;20(1):6-12. doi:10.1089/pop.2015.0181.
  3. Diabetes Care 2018 Jan; 41(Supplement 1): S1-S2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-Sint01. Accessed February 27, 2018.
  4. Genetics Home Reference. Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Type 2 diabetes. National Institutes of Health.